'IoT 표준'에 해당하는 글 2건

IoT and M2M standardization

IoT 2016.01.28 22:16


A list of some organizations providing standards for the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine

what and who section contents are copied from relative web sites - in progress

  • Open Interconnect Consortium
    • what: the Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) will seek to define a common communication framework based on industry standard technologies to wirelessly connect and intelligently manage the flow of information among devices, regardless of form factor, operating system or service provider. OIC also intends to deliver open source implementations for a variety of IoT market opportunities and vertical segments from smart home solutions to automotive and more.
    • who: Cisco, Intel, Mediatek, Samsung, ADT, Atmel, Dell, EyeballNetworks, HP, etc.
    • news:
  • Thread Group
    • what: build a technology that uses and combines the best of what’s out there and create a networking protocol that can help the Internet of Things realize its potential for years to come.
    • who: ARM, Big Ass Fans, Freescale, nest, Samsung, Silicon Labs, Yale, etc.
  • AllSeen Alliance
    • what: to enable widespread adoption and help accelerate the development and evolution of an interoperable peer connectivity and communications framework based on AllJoyn for devices and applications in the Internet of Everything.
    • who: Electrolux, Haier, LG, Microsoft, Panasonic, Qualcomm, Sharp, Silicon Image, Sony, Technicolor, TP-Link, etc.
    • news:
  • HyperCat Consortium
    • what: the HyperCat specification allows Internet of Things clients to discover what data an IoT server has available. It is built on the same Web standards that are now common for that interface, i.e. HTTPS, REST/HATEOAS, JSON.  With HyperCat, developers can write apps that will work across many servers, which helps to break down the walls between today's vertical silos.
    • who: 1248, AIMES, AlertMe, Amey, ARM, Avanti Communications, Balfour Beatty, Bre, BT, Carillion, City of Westminster, Critical Software, Ctrl-Shift, EDF Energy, Eseye, Flexeye, Guildford Borough, Highway Agency, IBM, Intel, IntelliSense, In Touch, Living PlanIT, London City Airport, The Merseyside Transport Trust, Milligan, Mission:Explore, Neul, Open Dta Institute, Placr, Red Ninja Studios, Science Scope, SHABA, Stakeholder Design, Traak Systems, University of Birmingham, University of Bristol, University of Cambridge, University College London, Lancaster University, The Open University, University of Surrey, etc.
  • Industrial Internet Consortium
    • what: the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) was founded in March 2014 to bring together the organizations and technologies necessary to accelerate growth of the Industrial Internet by identifying, assembling and promoting best practices.
    • who: AT&T, Cisco, General Electric, IBM, Intel, etc.
    • news:
  • Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI)
    • what: the Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) promotes a unified approach in ITU-T for development of technical standards (Recommendations) enabling the Internet of Things on a global scale. ITU-T Recommendations developed under the IoT-GSI by the various ITU-T Questions - in collaboration with other standards developing organizations (SDOs) – will enable worldwide service providers to offer the wide range of services expected by this technology. IoT-GSI also aims to act as an umbrella for IoT standards development worldwide.
    • who: members of ITU-T
  • ITU Joint Coordination Activity on IoT
    • what: the scope of the JCA-IoT is to coordinate the ITU-T work on the “Internet of Things” including networks aspects of identification of things, and ubiquitous sensor network (USN). 
    • who: members of ITU-T
  • oneM2M
    • what: the purpose and goal of oneM2M is to develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software, and relied upon to connect the myriad of devices in the field with M2M application servers worldwide.
    • who: 208 participating partners and members, most of them being affiliated to one of the following SDOs (Standards Developing Organization): ARIB, ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TIA, TTA, TTC
  • TIA TR-50 
    • what: responsible for the development and maintenance of access agnostic interface standards for the monitoring and bi-directional communication of events and information between machine-to-machine (M2M) systems and smart devices, applications or networks.
    • who: The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is the leading [USA] trade association representing the global information and communications technology (ICT) industry.
  • Open Mobile Alliance
    • what: OMA delivers open specifications for creating interoperable services that work across all geographical boundaries, on any bearer network. OMA’s specifications support the billions of new and existing fixed and mobile terminals across a variety of mobile networks, including traditional cellular operator networks and emerging networks supporting machine-to-machine device communication.
    • who: AT&T, BlackBerry, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola Solutions, NTT DOCOMO, Orange, Qualcomm, etc.
  • OMG Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) 
    • what: the first open international middleware standard directly addressing publish-subscribe communications for real-time and embedded systems. The Object Management Group (OMG) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium.
    • who: hundreds of organizations including software end-users in over two dozen vertical markets (from finance to healthcare and automotive to insurance) and virtually every large organization in the technology industry.
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Architecture Working Group from IEEE
    • what: to deliver a standard defining an architectural framework for the Internet of Things (IoT), including descriptions of various IoT domains, definitions of IoT domain abstractions, and identification of commonalities between different IoT domains.
    • who: members of IEEE-SA (Standards Association)
  • IETF
  • IPSO Alliance
    • what: IPSO seeks to establish the Internet Protocol as the basis for the connection of Smart Objects. The IPSO Alliance provides a foundation for industry growth by fostering awareness, providing education, promoting the industry, generating research, and creating a better understanding of IP and its role in the Internet of Things.
    • who: ARM, Atmel, Bosch, Cooper Power Systems, Dust Networks, EDF, Ericsson, Freescale, Greenwave Systems, Gridconnect, IAR Systems, Landis+Gyr, Micrium, Sigma Designs, Silicon Labs, Silverspring, ST, SICS, Tridium, etc.
  • Alliance for Internet of Things Innovation 
    • what: to strengthen links and build new relationships between the different IoT players (industries, SMEs, startups) and sectors. It will also be used to promote interoperability and convergence between standards, facilitate policy debates and prepare a Commission's initiative for large scale testing and experimentation.
    • who: European Commission, Bosch, Philips, Sigfox
  • W3C Web of Things Community Group
    • what: the aim of the Web of Things Community Group (CG) is to accelerate the adoption of Web technologies as a basis for enabling services for the combination of the Internet of Things with rich descriptions of things and the context in which they are used.
    • who: Toshiba, IBM, University of Surrey, Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Dell, Intel, Samsung, MITRE, Institut Telecom, Telecom Italia, Siemens, Nokia, NTT, Université de Lyon, Sony, INRIA, KDDI, Orange, etc.
  • W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group
    • what: the group had two main objectives. The first was to develop an ontology to describe sensors and sensor networks for use in sensor network and sensor web applications. The second was to study and recommend methods for using the ontology to semantically enable applications developed according to available standards such as the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC™) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards.
    • who: Open Geospatial Consortium, CSIRO, DERI, Ericsson, Boeing, Fundacion CETIC, Wright State University, etc.
  • Wireless IoT Forum 
    • what: to drive the widespread adoption of wireless wide-area networking technologies in both licensed and unlicensed spectrum.
    • who: no yet public
  • ZigBee Alliance
    • what: to develop standards that ultimately deliver greater freedom and flexibility for a smarter, more sustainable world. As a result of this focus, the ZigBee Alliance provides green, low-power and open global wireless networking standards focused on monitoring, control and sensor applications.
    • who: COMCAST, Freescale, Itron, Kroger, Landis+Gyr, Legrand, NXP, Philips, Schneider Electric, Silicon Laboratories, Texas Instruments, etc.
  • ULE Alliance
    • what: The ULE Alliance vision is to establish ULE (Ultra Low Energy) as the world’s leading control network eco-system for home and building use by leveraging the proven reliability and range of the DECT radio technology currently in use in 100’s of millions of products worldwide.
    • who: DECT Forum, Dialog Semiconductor, DSP Group, Gigaset Communications, Vtech, etc.
  • Z-Wave Alliance
    • what: to support Z-Wave as the enabling technology for the age of anywhere/everywhere wireless control and monitoring.
    • who: AHAM, CEA, CABA, Continua Health Alliance, CEDIA, ITU, IPSO Alliance, NIST, OpenADR Alliance, USNAP Alliance
  • to be continued...

[前草] 이승현 (wowlsh93@gmail.com)
스타코프 (데이터지능플랫폼pd) (관심분야: 에너지IoT, 시계열(NILM) 데이터, 폴리글랏 프로그래밍 )

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Developer’s Guide To IoT Standards

Internet of Things may seem a young (and promising) industry but it has already started facing at least one problem typical for older ones. The problem is standardization, or rather lack of thereof: currently there’s a bunch of different platforms fighting, with new ones mushrooming every month or even more often.

The need for one standard to unite all the refrigerators, thermostats, cars, washing machines and other smart appliances is obvious. However, it seems like there won’t be just one winner in this war as too many players have already got some traction with manufacturers. As Z-Wave’s Avi Rosenthal put it:

“There will be a prevailing standard at some point. But it is going to take years, maybe 5-7 years, and I expect the standards will change over time.”

To navigate the rough sea of IoT standards, here’s a handy guide for developers gearing up towards building a new IoT appliance.


There are Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, so why bother?

Actually, quite a few players on the IoT scene don’t bother at all and just use the most widely adopted universal standards. It goes for all devices that would connect to your home Wi-Fi network, from Petcube to Amazon Echo, which also uses Bluetooth to stream music from mobile devices.

However, more sophisticated smart home devices like thermostats or energy monitoring systems, which need to interact with other appliances, need protocols tailored for their purposes. According to Jeffrey Kaplan, managing director of Think Strategies, usage of standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi raises questions of security, privacy, and efficiency.

Hence the fragmentation.


An open standard by IEEE dating back to 2003 with the later revisions from 2006 and 2007, ZigBee uses low-power radios to transfer data through mesh networks. That means that although the transmission is limited to 10–100 meters, it uses intermediate devices to pass the data further, so all the radios work as repeaters.

ZigBee is a good solution for those concerned about security: the mesh networks are secured by 128 bit symmetric encryption keys.

There are quite a few ZigBee-compatible devices on the market, however some say that gadgets by different manufacturers may have difficulties communicating with each other.


This standard has the largest installed base of products at the moment, even though it’s a proprietary one owned by Sigma Designs. The standard also uses power-efficient radios and mesh networks but works on the 908.42 MHz frequency, while its rival ZigBee runs on the 2.5 GHz.

Z-Wave Alliance’s Raoul Wijgergangs says that ZigBee’s frequency is also used by Wi-Fi, which makes the spectrum much more cluttered. Less cluttered spectrum, in his opinion, can mean reduced power usage and fewer attempts that have to be made to send the data between radios.

The fact that Z-Wave is today’s market leader doesn’t mean anything if we think about the future. For example, the recent Samsung’s IoT chip Artik does not include support for Z-Wave, but will work with Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, and Google’s Thread.


One of the younger standards in the IoT world used by the Google-owned smart home appliances startup Nest. The working group behind the standard includes Samsung, ARM Holdings, Freescale, Silicon Labs, and Big Ass Fans. Thread creates an IP-addressable mesh network with up to 250 devices that supports cloud access and AES encryption.

Like ZigBee, it’s an open standard built on top of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol; recently the two working groups even announced plans to collaborate on creating a unified solution with ZigBee as a network layer and Thread as an application layer.

Apparently this one is worth looking at if you’re thinking about building something that’s going to need to communicate with core smart home appliances. Also, betting on something backed by Google doesn’t seem a bad idea.


But here comes another standard backed by a big name in the industry: Apple’s HomeKit. It’s not available for customers yet but we know quite a bit about the standard already.

HomeKit is supposed to be a platform that unites Apple-made and Apple-certified devices via Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Apple has already revealed a list of partners that includes iHome, Haier, Withings, Philips, iDevices, Belkin, Honeywell, and Kwikset.

HomeKit is not compatible for any other standards per se, though Apple has announced a hardware bridge that could be used to connect non-HomeKit devices that use ZigBee or Z-Wave with a HomeKit network. There are, however, numerous limitations to the range devices that can be bridged: basically, the only way to make sure your product will work with HomeKit is by receiving an MFi (Made For iPhone) license from Apple.


In addition to these four standards, there are several minor ones, as well as recently announced platforms we know nothing about, like that by Huawei. None of the current standards is perfect, which means that with the rapid increase in numbers of IoT devices we’ll see new entrants in this market.

As of today, however, it makes sense for IoT developers to look at the biggest players fighting a Battle Of The Four, with the battlefield being our own homes and hardware manufacturers’ preferences.

There’s another war going on, too — that of hardware platforms that can be used to power various Internet of Things appliances. This will be the topic of one of our next posts. Stay tuned!

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[前草] 이승현 (wowlsh93@gmail.com)
스타코프 (데이터지능플랫폼pd) (관심분야: 에너지IoT, 시계열(NILM) 데이터, 폴리글랏 프로그래밍 )

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